Židovi u Zagrebu

Židovi u Zagrebu

 

Prvi tragovi Židova na području RH datiraju iz antičkog doba II i III stoljeća (Senj, Salona, Muć itd). U vrijeme srednjeg vijeka svi se tragovi gube, iako se zna da su boravili u srednjevjekovnoj Hrvatskoj.

Manje je poznato da je početkom 15 stoljeća na zagrebačkom Gradecu postojala mala židovska zajednica (desetak obitelji), no protjerana je već sredinom istog stoljeća, te im je zabranjeno naseljavanje i boravak sve do druge polovine 18. stoljeća.

Ediktom o toleranciji (Systematica gentus Judeorum Regulatio) Josipa II izdatog 1782 Židovima se odobrava naseljavanje u sve zemlje Habzburškog carstva. Ovaj će se Edikt u Hrvatskoj početi primjenjivati 1783 godine. Iako formalno dozvoljeno administrativne procedure su duge i spore, te i naseljavanja idu sporo.

Početkom 19. stoljeća u Zagrebu živi 9 židovskih obitelji i oni već 1806 osnivaju Židovsku općinu, a tri godine kasnije, 1809., stiže i prvi rabin u Zagreb. Zanimljivo je da je većina naseljenih Židova bila mlađa od 40 godina.

Na malu zajednicu veliki su utjecaj imale prosvjetiteljske ideje Mosesa Mendelssohna. Mnogi su Židovi aktivno sudjelovali u revolucionarnim događajima 1848/49 na strani bana Jelačića.

Sredinom 19 stoljeća počinje modernizacija hrvatskih zemalja, Židovi stiču punu građansku ravnopravnost  1873 godine. Druga i treća generacija doseljenika akademski se obrazuje i postaju ugledni članovi zagrebačkog društva.Oko 1910 godine Židovi čine 1% stanovništva grada Zagreba, ali čak 25% zagrebačkih liječnika su Židovi, 17 % odvjetnika i veliki broj građevinara i arhitekata.

Na prijelazu 19 u 20 stoljeće u Hrvatskoj živi oko 20.000 Židova. Nakon Prvog svjetskog rata (1921) u Zagrebu živi 6.000 Židova koji čine 4,6% stanovništva.

Zagreb se vrlo brzo razvijao i između 1850 i 1941, te je i židovska zajednica rasla i sticala sve veći ugled u gradu, doprinoseći općem razvoju svoga grada u raznim područjima.

1841 osnovana je Židovska osnovna škola. 1866 započinje gradnja sinagoge u Praškoj ulici, a njezino je posvećenje bilo 1867 godine. Osebujnom arhitekturom (arhitekt Franjo Klein) i monumentalnošću mijenja izgled gradskog središta ali i simbolizira značajnu ulogu koju su Židovi imali i gradu. Sinagogu su srušile ustaše 1942, odlukom ustaških vlasti i zagrebačkog gradonačelnika Ivana Wernera

Veliki broj zagrebačkih Židova pripadao je Aškenaškoj reformnoj (neološkoj) grupi. Od 1926 godine postojala je i Aškenaška ortodoksna općina, a već 1927 registrirana je i ortodoksna sefardska zajednica.

Od 1941 – 1945 po raznim logorima Nezavisne Države Hrvatske pobijeno je između 8.000 i 9.000 zagrebačkih Židova, muškaraca, žena i djece. Broj manji od 3.000 preživio je strahote II Svjetskog rata da bi se njih oko 800 već 1948 iselilo za Izrael.

Mnogi su Židovi sudjelovali u NOB-u, a nakon kapitulacije Italije 1943, Židovi, zatvorenici logora Kampor na Rabu osnovali su Židovski bataljun i priključili se partizanima.

U to mračno doba evropske povijesti čak 104  Hrvata ugrozilo je i riskiralo svoje i živote svojih obitelji kako bi spasili Židove te su odlikovani medaljama i proglašeni su „Pravednicima među narodima“ od strane Jad vašema. Od 2011 godine, a na inicijativu Hrvatsko Izraelskog društva Zagreb ima i svoj park „Pravednika među narodima“.

 

Danas u Zagrebu postoje dvije zajednice koje osiguravaju nastavak židovskog života i tradicije na ovim prostorima:

1) ŽOZ — Židovska Općina Zagreb, Palmotićeva ulica 16, koja ima dječji vrtić „Mirjam Weiler“, Zakladu „Dr Lavoslav Schwartz“ Dom za starije osobe i odmaralište na moru u Pirovcu. Pri Općini djeluje CENDO Istraživački i dokumentacijski centar, te Kulturno društvo „Miroslav Shalom Freiberger“. U općini se održava tečaj hebrejskog jezika.

2) Židovska vjerska zajednica „Bet Israel“ Mažuranićev trg 6/II.

Osnivač je uspješne osnovne škole „Lauder Hugo Kon“ iz koje je školske godine 2010/2011 izašla prva generacija đaka.

Osim redovitih službi prema ortodoksnim običajima, organizira proslave svih židovskih blagdana, obilježava važne datume iz židovske povijesti i države Izrael.

U Zajednici se redovito održavaju tečajevi hebrejskog jezika. Bet Israel organizira  promocije knjiga, izložbe slika, fotografija i nakita. Zajednica djeluje i edukativno jer ju posjećuju učenici osnovnih i srednjih škola iz Slovenije i Hrvatske, i u Zajednici slušaju predavanja o Židovima na ovim prostorima kao i o židovskim običajima.

Zajednica se bavi i izdavaštvom knjiga i publikacija. Mješoviti zbor „Mihael Montiljo“ sudjeluje na mnogim gradskim manifestacijama.

Vjerska zajednica Bet Israel i škola „Lauder Hugo Kon“ drže košer propise. Zajednica je otvorena cijelu godinu i nudi posjetiteljima grada Zagreba mogućnost da se priključe molitvama s punim minjanom za Šabat i blagdane.

Institucija vrijedna spomena je i Židovska kulturna scena „Bejahad“ koja svojim programom okuplja stotine Židova s područja bivše Jugoslavije i Europe.

Društvo Hrvatsko Izraelskog prijateljstva vrijedna je institucija na njegovanju i održavanju prijateljstva između dvije države kao i promicanju židovskih vrijednosti.

Mnogi članovi židovskih zajednica poštovani su članovi kulturnog, znanstvenog i umjetničkog života grada Zagreba.

Ono što bi svakako trebali posjetiti u vrijeme boravka u Zagrebu su:

Mjesto gdje je nekada bila sinagoga u Praškoj ulici. Groblje na Mirogoju, kolekciju Judaike u Muzeju za umjetnost i obrt na trgu Maršala Tita, te Park pravednika među narodima.

Židovi Zagreba zahvaljuju se Zagrebačkoj Turističkoj Zajednici na pomoći oko realizacije ovog letka.

 

Idea and concept:                   Sonja Samokovlija

Text:                                        Sonja Samokovlija

Translation to Hebrew:          Sonja Makek Bar-Sela

Translation to English:            Margaret Casman Vuko i Miroslav Vuko

 

 

Jewish Community Bet Israel Zagreb

6 Mažuranićev trg

Tel. no : + 3851 4851008

Fax no : + 3851 4851376

E- mail : Ured@bet.israel.com

www.bet-israel.com

 

Synagogue service :  Bet Israel  Sabbath and holidays

 

Sabbath minha and arvit from Shavuot at 19.30 (7.30p.m)

Shahrit at 9.00

Monday and Thursday on request ( for groups)

 

Osnovna škola „Lauder Hugo Kohn“

6 Svačićev trg

Tel no : +3851 3333892

 

 

Jewish Community of Zagreb:

16 Palmotićeva Street

Tel. no. : ++385-1-492-2692

Fax no. : ++385-1-492-2694

E-mail  :  jcz@zg.t-com.hr

 

 

CENDO Istraživački i Dokumentacijski centar

16 Palmotićeva street

www.cendo.hr

 

*   *   *

Jews in Zagreb

 

The first evidence of Jews living in Croatian territory dates to the second and third centuries of the Common Era (Senj, Salon, Muć etc.). It is known that Jews lived in medieval Croatia but all traces have been lost.  It is less well known that in the early fifteenth century, there was a small Jewish community of about ten families in the Gradec section of Zagreb, from which they were expelled in the middle of that century and forbidden to settle or live there until the second half of the eighteenth century.

The Edict of Tolerance issued by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II in 1782 allowed Jews to settle throughout all the countries of the Habsburg Empire and was implemented a year later in the territory of Croatia. Although formal permission had been granted, administrative procedures are time consuming, so settlement was slow.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were nine Jewish families living in Zagreb. Already in 1806, they established a Jewish community center. Three years later, in 1809, the first rabbi arrived in Zagreb. It is interesting the majority of the Jewish population were younger than 40 years of age.

The small community was greatly influenced by the Jewish Enlightenment Movement founded by Moses Mendelssohn. Many Jews actively participated in the revolutionary events of 1848/49, siding with Ban Jelačić.

In the mid nineteenth century, the beginning of the modernization of Croatian lands began. Jews achieved full legal equality in the year 1873. The second and third generations pursued academic studies and became distinguished members of Zagreb society. In 1910, Jews constituted 1% of the population of the city of Zagreb but 25% of the Zagreb physicians were Jewish, 17% of the lawyers and there were a large number of Jewish civil engineers and architects.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, there were approximately 20,000 Jews living in Croatia. In 1921, following the First World War, there were approximately 6,000 Jews living in Zagreb, who made up 4.6% of the population.

Zagreb developed very rapidly between 1850 and 1941, with the Jewish community enlarging and acquiring a reputation for contributing to general growth in various fields.

In 1841, a Jewish elementary school was established.

In 1866, construction began on the synagogue on Praška Street, which was dedicated in 1867. Its distinctive architecture by Franjo Klein and monumentality altered the appearance of the city center but also symbolized the significant role that Jews had in Zagreb.. The synagogue was demolished in 1942 by a decision of the Ustasha government and the mayor of Zagreb, Ivan Werner.

A large number of Zagreb Jews were Ashkenazi, who belonged to the Reform (Neology) movement. The Ashkenazi Orthodox community was established in 1926 and the Orthodox Sephardic community was registered in 1927.

From 1941 to 1945, between 8,000 and 9,000 Zagreb Jews—men, women and children—were killed in various concentration camps of the IndependentState of Croatia. Fewer than 3,000 survived the horrors of the Second World War, of whom 800 migrated to Israel in 1948.  Many Jews fought in the National Liberation Army during the Second World War. After the capitulation of Italy in 1943, Jews in the camp of Kampor on the island of Rab founded the Jewish Battalion and joined the Partisans.

Yad Vashem has recognized 104 Croats who risked their lives and the lives of their families to rescue Jews during that dark period of European history, awarding them medals and proclaiming them “Righteous among the Nations.” Since 2011, at the initiative of the Croatian-Israeli Friendship Society, Zagreb has its own Righteous among the NationsPark.

Today in Zagreb, there are two Jewish communities that ensure the continuation of Jewish life and traditions in this region.

1) The Jewish Community of Zagreb (Židovska Općina Zagreb—ŽOZ), Palmotićeva ulica 16, has the Mirjam Weiler Kindergarten, the Dr Lavoslav Schwartz Foundation Home for the Aged, and a seaside summer camp in Pirovac.  The CENDO Research and DocumentationCenter and the Miroslav Shalom Freiberger Cultural Society are also part of the Jewish Community of Zagreb. Hebrew language courses are offered.

2) The Bet Israel Jewish Community is located on Mažuranićev trg 6/II.

It is the founder of the successful Lauder-Hugo Kon Elementary School, from which the first generation of students graduated in 2011.

In addition to regular services according to Orthodox practice, celebrations of all the Jewish holidays are organized, as well as commemorations of important dates in Jewish history and the State of Israel.

Courses in the Hebrew language are held regularly at Bet Israel. Book promotions and exhibitions of paintings, photographs and jewelry are also organized. The Bet Israel Jewish Community has an educational role, as it is visited by elementary and secondary school students from Croatia and Slovenia, who receive lectures on Jews in this region and Jewish customs.

Bet Israel also publishes books and other publications. Its Mihael Montiljo Choir participates in many commemorations and events throughout Croatia.

Bet Israel and the Lauder-HugoKonElementary School observe the laws of kashrut. The Bet Israel Jewish Community is open throughout the year and offers visitors to the city of Zagreb the opportunity to join in prayers with a full minyan on Shabbat and holidays.

The program of the Jewish cultural manifestation Bejahad gathers hundreds of Jews from the territory of the former Yugoslavia and Europe.

The Croatian-Israeli Friendship Society is a worthy institution that cultivates and fosters friendship between the two countries and promotes Jewish values.

Many members of the Jewish communities are distinguished members of the cultural, scientific and artistic life of the city of Zagreb.

The site of the former synagogue on Praška Street, the Jewish Section of the MirogojCemetery and the Judaica Collection at the Arts and Crafts Museum on Marshal Tito Square are attractions that should not be missed.

 

The Jews of Zagreb thank the Zagreb Tourist Board for assistance with this brochure.

 

Idea and concept:                   Sonja Samokovlija

Text:                                        Sonja Samokovlija

Translation into Hebrew:        Sonja Makek Bar-Sela

Translation into English:         Margaret Casman-Vuko and Miroslav Vuko

 

The Bet Israel Jewish Community of Zagreb

6 Mažuranićev trg

Tel.: + 3851 4851008

Fax: + 3851 4851376

E- mail : Ured@bet.israel.com

www.bet-israel.com

 

Synagogue services: Sabbath and holidays

 

Sabbath Mincha and Arvit are held from Shavuot at 7.30 p.m

Shacharit is at 9.00 a.m.

 

Monday and Thursday Schahrit can be held on request (for groups).

 

Lauder-HugoKonElementary School

6 Svačićev trg

Tel.: +3851 3333892

 

 

The Jewish Community of Zagreb:

16 Palmotićeva

Tel.: ++385-1-492-2692

Fax: ++385-1-492-2694

E-mail:  jcz@zg.t-com.hr

 

 

CENDO Research and DocumentationCenter

16 Palmotićeva

www.cendo.hr

*   *   *

היהודים בזגרב

 העקבות הראשונים של היהודים באזור רפובליקה של קרואטיה מובילים לתקופה העתיקה של המאה השנייה והשלישית לספירה (אתרים כמו סלומה, סניי, מוץ’ וכו’).  לא נמצאו שום נתונים על היהודים באזור זה בימי הביניים למרות שקיומם ידוע.

מה שפחות ידוע הוא שבהתחלת המאה ה-15, הייתה בגראדץ של זאגרב קהילה יהודית קטנה (כ-10 משפחות)  אבל הן גורשו כבר בשנת 1450 מהעיר ורק אחרי שקיסר אוסטריה יוזף השני הוציא צו סובלנות(Systematica gentus Judeorum Regulatio)   בשנת 1782 שהרשה להן להתיישב בכל ארצות הקיסרות ההבסבורגית  הן החלו לאט לחזור ולהתיישב בעיר. בשנת 1806 גרות בזאגרב 9 משפחות יהודיות ובאותה שנה הן מייסדות קהילה יהודית בזגרב.  ב- 1809 מגיע הרב הראשון לזאגרב. ראוי לציין שרוב היהודים שהתיישבו בזאגרב היו מתחת לגיל 40.

הרעיונות של משה מנדלסון מתנועת ההשכלה היהודית השפיעו רבות על הקהילה הקטנה וגרמו לכך שיהודים רבים השתתפו בפועל במאורעות המהפכניות בשנים 1848/49 לצידו של המושל באן ילאצ’יץ’. במחצית המאה ה-19 החלה המודרניזציה של קרואטיה ויהודי קרואטיה זכו בשוויון זכויות מלא בשנת 1873. הדור השני והשלישי של המתיישבים היהודים רוכש השכלה אקדמית והופך לחלק מכובד של החברה בזאגרב. בשנת 1910 בערך, מהווים היהודים 1% מתושבי זאגרב ו-25% מכלל הרופאים הם יהודים, 17% עורכי-דין וישנו מספר גדול של קבלני בניה ואדריכלים.

במעבר מהמאה ה-19 למאה ה-20 גרים בקרואטיה כ-20,000 יהודים. אחרי מלחמת העולם הראשונה מונה הקהילה היהודית של זאגרב (1921) 6,000 איש, כלומר 4.6% מאוכלוסיית זאגרב.

העיר זאגרב התפתחה מהר מאד בין השנים 1850- 1941 ויחד איתה גדלה ושגשגה הקהילה היהודית, רכשה מעמד מכובד בעיר ותרמה בגדול להתפתחותה בכל התחומים. בשנת 1841 נפתח בית ספר יסודי יהודי. ב-1866 החלו בבניה של בית הכנסת הגדול ברח’ פראשקה שנחנך בשנת 1867. האדריכלות המיוחדת והמרשימה (האדריכל פראניו קליין) של בית הכנסת שנתה את המראה של מרכז העיר והמבנה סמל את תפקידם החשוב של היהודים בעיר.

בשנת 1942 הרסו האוסטשים את בית הכנסת לפי הוראת ראש העיר איוון וורנר.

רוב יהודי זאגרב היו אשכנזים שהשתייכו לזרם הרפורמי (הנאולוגי ) אבל בשנת 1926 הוקמה גם קהילה אשכנזית אורתודוכסית ושנה אחת אחרי זה גם קהילה ספרדית אורתודוכסית.

משנת 1941 עד 1945 נהרגו במחנות “המדינה הקרואטית העצמאית”  בין 8,000 ו-9,000 יהודים, גברים, נשים וילדים. פחות מ-3,000 שרדו אחרי מלחמת העולם השנייה  ו-800 מהם עלו לישראל כבר בשנת 1948.

יהודים רבים השתתפו כפרטיזנים במלחמת השחרור של יוגוסלביה ואחרי שאיטליה נכנעה בשנת 1943 ארגנו היהודים שהיו  סגורים במחנה קמפור שעל האי ראב, בריגדה יהודית שהצטרפה לפרטיזנים.

בתקופה החשוכה הזאת בהיסטורית אירופה היו גם קרואטים שסיכנו את חייהם ואת חיי משפחותיהם כדי להציל יהודים.  עד כה זכו 104 קרואטים באות ההוקרה של יד ושם והוכרזו לחסידי אומות העולם.

בשנת 2011 הוקם בזאגרב פארק בשם “חסידי אומות העולם”, ביוזמת אגודת  הידידות ישראל קרואטיה.

כיום גרים בזגרב כ-1500 יהודים.

הקהילה היהודית “בית ישראל”  היא ממייסדי בית הספר היסודי היהודי המוצלח “לאודר הוגו קון” שבו סיים בשנת 2011/12  את לימודיו המחזור הראשון.

חוץ מהתפילות בבית הכנסת לפי הנוהל האורתודוכסי, מארגנת הקהילה מסיבות לחגים ומציינת

תאריכים חשובים ליהדות ולישראל.

הקהילה מארגנת קורסים לעברית, הצגות ספרים, תערוכות תמונות, צילומים ותכשיטים.

לקהילה יש גם תפקיד חינוכי כי נותנים בה הרצאות לתלמידי בתי ספר יסודיים ותיכון מקרואטיה וסלובניה על תולדות היהודים באזור ועל מנהגי היהדות.

הקהילה מוציאה לאור ספרים ודברי דפוס אחרים. המקהלה על שם “מיכאל מונטיליו” מופיעה באירועים רבים בעיר.

קהילת בית ישראל ובית הספר “לאודר הוגו קון” מקפידים על כשרות.

הקהילה פתוחה במשך כל השנה ומאפשרת למבקרים בזאגרב להצטרף לתפילה בשבתות וחגים במניין.

רבים מחברי הקהילה הם חברים מכובדים ומוכרים בחיי התרבות, המדע והאומנות של העיר.

בין אתרי המורשת היהודית בזאגרב, ראוי לבקר במקום בו עמד בעבר בית הכנסת הגדול של זאגרב, ברחוב פראשקה מס’ 7 (לא רחוק מהכיכר המרכזית של העיר ע”ש באן ילצ’יץ’), בית העלמין “מירוגוי” (שכולל גם חלק יהודי)  ומוזיאון לאומנות  ומלאכה של זגרב, בכיכר טיטו,  בו אפשר לראות אוסף קטן של יודאיקה ואת פארק “חסידי אומות העולם”..

הקהילה היהודית בית ישראל זאגרב

כיכר מאז’וראניץ’ 6

(Mažuranićev trg 6)

טל’: +385 1-485-1008

פקס: +385 1-485-1376

ד”א: ured@bet.israel.com

www.bet-israel.com

זמני התפילות בבית הכנסת: שבת וחגים

שבת מנחה לפי זמני ההלכה

שחרית: שעה 9:00 בבוקר

יום שני וחמישי פתוח לפי תאום (לקבוצות)

בית ספר יסודי “לאודר הוגו קון”

כיכר סבאצ’יץ’ 6

(Svačićev trg 6)

טל’: +385 1-3333892

http://www.lauder-hugokon.hr/portal/